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Bernecker and Dretske argue that "no epistemologist since Gettier has seriously and successfully defended the traditional view. Belief revision An extensive amount of scientific research and philosophical discussion exists around the modification of beliefs, which is commonly referred to as belief revision.
One process of belief revision is Bayesian updating and is often referenced for its mathematical basis and conceptual simplicity.
However, such a process may not be representative for individuals whose beliefs are not easily characterized as probabilistic. There are several techniques for individuals or groups to change the beliefs of others; these methods generally fall under the umbrella of persuasion.
Persuasion can take on more specific forms such as consciousness raising when considered in an activist or political context. Belief modification may also occur as a result of the experience of outcomes. Because goals are based, in part on beliefs, the success or failure at a particular goal may contribute to modification of beliefs that supported the original goal.
Whether or not belief modification actually occurs is dependent not only on the extent of truths or evidence for the alternative belief, but also characteristics outside the specific truths or evidence. This includes, but is not limited to: Therefore, individuals seeking to achieve belief modification in themselves or others need to consider all possible forms of resistance to belief revision.
Partial[ edit ] Without qualification, "belief" normally implies a lack of doubtespecially insofar as it is a designation of a life stance.
In practical everyday use however, belief is normally partial and retractable with varying degrees of certainty. A copious literature exists in multiple disciplines to accommodate this reality. In mathematics probabilityfuzzy logicfuzzy set theoryand other topics are largely directed to this.
Prediction[ edit ] Different psychological models have tried to predict people's beliefs and some of them try to estimate the exact probabilities of beliefs. For example, Robert Wyer developed a model of subjective probabilities. The subjective probability model posits that these subjective probabilities follow the same rules as objective probabilities.
For example, the law of total probability might be applied to predict a subjective probability value. Wyer found that this model produces relatively accurate predictions for probabilities of single events and for changes in these probabilities, but that the probabilities of several beliefs linked by "and" or "or" do not follow the model as well.
Religious beliefs, deriving from ideas that are exclusive to religion,[ citation needed ] often relate to the existence, characteristics and worship of a deity or deities, to the idea of divine intervention in the universe and in human lifeor to the deontological explanations for the values and practices centered on the teachings of a spiritual leader or of a spiritual group.
In contrast to other belief systemsreligious beliefs are usually codified. Religious fundamentalism First self-applied as a term to the conservative doctrine outlined by anti-modernist Protestants in the United States of America,  "fundamentalism" in religious terms denotes strict adherence to an interpretation of scriptures that are generally associated with theologically conservative positions or traditional understandings of the text and are distrustful of innovative readings, new revelation, or alternative interpretations.
Orthodoxy disambiguation First used in the context of Early Christianitythe term "orthodoxy" relates to religious belief that closely follows the edicts, apologiesand hermeneutics of a prevailing religious authority.
In the case of Early Christianity, this authority was the communion of bishops, and is often referred to by the term " Magisterium ".College of the Sequoias (COS) is a public two-year community college in Visalia, leslutinsduphoenix.com college is named for the Giant Sequoia trees native to the nearby Sierra Nevada mountain range.
The Best "I Believe" Speeches. By It's not about what you have, whether tangible or not, it's about what you believe in.
What I believe in is what I am thankful for, and the rest is just the window dressing.
And so in the comments, tell everyone what you believe in, and below are the five best "I Believe" speeches, from books, movies and.
United Methodist Topics. In the topic pages below, we have gathered useful news and features, videos, resources and official church statements around social issues of the day, beliefs and church seasons, and particular areas of ministry in which the church is engaged.
About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the world.
It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research.
“This I Believe” Ideas Posted on January 23, · 4 Comments I really believe in the idea of living in the present and not dwelling too much on the past and future.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints acknowledges that same-sex attraction is a sensitive issue which requires kindness, compassion, and understanding.
The website “Love One Another: A Discussion on Same-Sex Attraction” strives to address, through interviews and videos from Church leaders and members, the issue of same-sex attraction as it relates to individuals and .