Speed of light research paper

In this theory, light is described by the fundamental excitations or quanta of the electromagnetic field, called photons. In QED, photons are massless particles and thus, according to special relativity, they travel at the speed of light in vacuum. Extensions of QED in which the photon has a mass have been considered.

Speed of light research paper

March 6, But some scientists are exploring the possibility that this cosmic speed limit changes. Iscatel Shutterstock The speed of light in a vacuum ismiles per secondkilometers per secondand in theory nothing can travel faster than light. In miles per hour, light speed is, well, a lot: If you could travel at the speed of light, you could go around the Earth 7.

Early scientists, unable to perceive light's motion, thought it must travel instantaneously. Over time, however, measurements of the motion of these wave-like particles became more and more precise.

Thanks to the work of Albert Einstein and others, we now understand light speed to be a theoretical limit: That doesn't stop sci-fi writers, and even some Speed of light research paper serious scientists, from imagining alternative theories that would allow for some awfully fast trips around the universe.

History of the theory The first known discourse on the speed of light comes from the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, who penned his disagreement with another Greek scientist, Empedocles.

Empedocles argued that because light moved, it must take time to travel. Aristotle, believing light to travel instantaneously, disagreed.

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Inthe Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei stood two people on hills less than a mile apart, each holding a shielded lantern. One uncovered his lantern; when the second saw the flash, he uncovered his, as well. By observing how long it took for the light to be seen by the first lantern-holder and factoring out reaction timeshe thought he could calculate the speed of light.

Unfortunately, Galileo's experimental distance of less than a mile was too small to see a difference, so he could only determine that light traveled at least 10 times faster than sound.

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He determined that light took time to travel from Io to Earth. The eclipses lagged the most when Jupiter and Earth were farthest apart, and were on schedule as they were closer.

InEnglish physicist James Bradley based his calculations on the change in the apparent position of the stars due Earth's travels around the sun.

Two attempts in the mids brought the problem back to Earth. French physicist Hippolyte Fizeau set a beam of light on a rapidly rotating toothed wheel, with a mirror set up 5 miles away to reflect it back to its source.

Speed of light research paper

Varying the speed of the wheel allowed Fizeau to calculate how long it took for the light to travel out of the hole, to the adjacent mirror, and back through the gap.

Another French physicist, Leon Foucault, used a rotating mirror rather than a wheel. The two independent methods each came within about 1, miles per second of the speed of light measured today. Prussian-born Albert Michelson, who grew up in the United States, attempted to replicate Foucault's method inbut used a longer distance, as well as extremely high-quality mirrors and lenses.

An interesting footnote to Michelson's experiment was that he was trying to detect the medium that light traveled through, referred to as luminiferous aether.

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Instead, his experiment revealed the aether didn't exist. In it, he established that light travels at the same speed no matter how fast the observer moves. Even using the most precise measurements possible, the speed of light remains the same for an observer standing still on the face of the Earth as it does for one traveling in a supersonic jet above its surface.

Similarly, even though Earth is orbiting the sun, which is itself moving around the Milky Way, which is a galaxy traveling through space, the measured speed of light coming from our sun would be the same whether one stood inside or outside of the galaxy to calculate it.It is the speed of all massless particles and associated fields—including electromagnetic radiation such as light—in vacuum, and it is predicted by the current theory to be the speed of gravity (that is, gravitational waves).

Such particles and waves travel at c regardless of the motion of the source or the inertial frame of reference of the observer. The speed at which light propagates through transparent materials, such as glass or air, is less than c. The ratio between c and the speed v at which light travels in a material is called the refractive index n of the material (n = c / v).

While these particles are traveling faster than light does in water, they're not actually breaking the cosmic speed limit of ,, miles per hour. The speed of light in a vacuum is , miles per second (, kilometers per second), and in theory nothing can travel faster than light. will be very great, since travel must occur at less than light speed; round trips of several hundred years appear likely.

The second is that, if interstellar trade. European scientists and philosophers believed that the speed of light was infinite until Danish astronomer Ole Roemer (–) demonstrated otherwise in In the early 17th century, Johannes Kepler stated that the speed of light is infinite since empty space presents no obstacle to it.

Physicist suggests speed of light might be slower than thought