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Members of the Achaemenid royal bodyguard, from a bas-relief at Persepolis The Islamic revolution in brought a sudden end to the rule of the Pahlavi dynasty, which for fifty years had been identified with the attempt to modernize and Westernize Iran.
The Revolution replaced the monarchy with an Islamic republic and a secular state with a quasi-theocracy. It brought new elites to power, altered the pattern of Iran's foreign relations, and led to the transfer of substantial wealth from private ownership to state control.
There were continuities across the watershed of the Revolution, however; bureaucratic structure and behavior, attitudes toward authority and individual rights, and the arbitrary use of power remained much the same.
Innearly a decade after Origin of the 1905 russian revolution essay Revolution, it was still too early to determine whether the continuities -- always striking over the long sweep of Iran's history -- or the changes would prove the more permanent.
The Revolution ended a pattern of monarchical rule that, untilhad been an almost uninterrupted feature of Iranian government for nearly years. The tradition of monarchy itself is even older. In the sixth century B. It had an absolute monarch, centralized rule, a highly developed system of administration, aspirations of world rule, and a culture that was uniquely Iranian even as it borrowed, absorbed, and transformed elements from other cultures and civilizations.
The impact of the Islamic conquest in the seventh century was profound. It introduced a new religion and a new social and legal system.
The Iranian heartland became part of a world empire whose center was not in Iran. Nevertheless, historians have found striking continuities in Iranian social structure, administration, and culture. Iranians contributed significantly to all aspects of Islamic civilization; in many ways they helped shape the new order.
By the ninth century, there was a revival of the Persian Farsi language and of a literature that was uniquely Iranian but was enriched by Arabic and Islamic influences. The breakup of the Islamic empire led, in Iran as in other parts of the Islamic world, to the establishment of local dynasties.
Iran, like the rest of the Middle East, was affected by the rise to power of the Seljuk Turks and then by the destruction wrought first by the Mongols and then by Timur, also called Tamerlane Timur the Lame.
With the rise of the SafavidsIran was reconstituted as a territorial state within borders not very different from those prevailing today. Shia see Glossary Islam became the state religion, and monarchy once again became a central institution. Persian became unquestionably the language of administration and high culture.
Although historians no longer assert that under the Safavids Iran emerged as a nation-state in the modern sense of the term, nevertheless by the seventeenth century the sense of Iranian identity and Iran as a state within roughly demarcated borders was more pronounced.
The Qajars attempted to revive the Safavid Empire and in many ways patterned their administration after that of the Safavids.
But the Qajars lacked the claims to religious legitimacy available to the Safavids; they failed to establish strong central control; and they faced an external threat from technically, militarily, and economically superior European powers, primarily Russia and Britain.
Foreign interference in Iran, Qajar misrule, and new ideas on government led in to protests and eventually to the Constitutional Revolutionwhich, at least on paper, limited royal absolutism, created in Iran a constitutional monarchy, and recognized the people as a source of legitimacy.
The rise of Reza Shah Pahlavi, who as Reza Khan seized power in and established a new dynasty inreflected the failure of the constitutional experiment. His early actions also reflected the aspirations of educated Iranians to create a state that was strong, centralized, free of foreign interference, economically developed, and sharing those characteristics thought to distinguish the more advanced states of Europe from the countries of the East.
This work of modernization and industrialization, expansion of education, and economic development was continued by the second Pahlavi monarch, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi. He made impressive progress in expanding employment and economic and educational opportunities, in building up strong central government and a strong military, in limiting foreign influence, and in giving Iran an influential role in regional affairs.
Such explosions of unrest as occurred during the oil nationalization crisis and the riots during the Muslim month of Moharram, indicated that there were major unresolved tensions in Iranian society, however.
These stemmed from inequities in wealth distribution; the concentration of power in the hands of the crown and bureaucratic, military, and entrepreneurial elites; the demands for political participation by a growing middle class and members of upwardly mobile lower classes; a belief that Westernization posed a threat to Iran's national and Islamic identity; and a growing polarization between the religious classes and the state.
These tensions and problems gave rise to the Islamic Revolution. In the late s, they continued to challenge Iran's new rulers. Before then, Iran was occupied by peoples with a variety of cultures. There are numerous artifacts attesting to settled agriculture, permanent sun-dried-brick dwellings, and pottery-making from the sixth millennium B.Fideisms Judaism is the Semitic monotheistic fideist religion based on the Old Testament's ( BCE) rules for the worship of Yahweh by his chosen people, the children of Abraham's son Isaac (c BCE)..
Zoroastrianism is the Persian monotheistic fideist religion founded by Zarathustra (cc BCE) and which teaches that good must be chosen over evil in order to achieve salvation. Stephen R. Mackinnon & John Fairbank invariably failed to separate fondness for the Chinese communist revolution from fondness for Gong Peng, the communist fetish who worked together with Anneliese Martens to infatuate American wartime reporters.
(More, refer to the Communist Platonic Club at wartime capital Chungking.). Most of the leading Communists who took control of Russia in were Jews.
How did the Bolsheviks, a small movement guided by the teachings of German-Jewish social philosopher Karl Marx, succeed in taking control of Russia and imposing a cruel and despotic regime on its people? FOREWORD. Since its first publication in the Brazilian cultural journal Catolicismo in , Revolution and Counter-Revolution has gone through a number of editions in Portuguese, English, French, Italian, and Spanish..
The present edition is the first to be published digitally in the United States. Russian literature, the body of written works produced in the Russian language, beginning with the Christianization of Kievan Rus in the late 10th century.
The most celebrated period of Russian literature was the 19th century, which produced, in a remarkably short period, some of the indisputable. The Jewish Role in the Bolshevik Revolution and Russia's Early Soviet Regime.
Assessing the Grim Legacy of Soviet Communism. by Mark Weber. In the night of July , , a squad of Bolshevik secret police murdered Russia's last emperor, Tsar Nicholas II, along with his wife, Tsaritsa Alexandra, their year-old son, Tsarevich Alexis, and their four daughters.