Great white shark research papers

Predatory Behavior of Great White Sharks Overview Sharks are apex predators throughout the ocean, yet relatively few studies have quantified or determined factors influencing their hunting behavior and predatory success rates. The waters surrounding Seal Island in False Bay, South Africa, provide a unique opportunity to study predator-prey interactions involving Great White Sharks hereafter white sharks. During the winter, white sharks visit Seal Island to hunt Cape fur seals.

Great white shark research papers

As part of the program the Shark Lab aims to establish baseline data including relative abundance, species and size composition, growth rates, sex ratios, habitat utilisation and preference, spatial and temporal distribution, seasonal variation, residency and site fidelity, individual recognition, survival, mortality and recruitment, recapture rates for small and medium sharks but also to monitor these shifts as potential anthropogenic modifications and developments take place within the bay.

The aim of this multifaceted, multi-institutional, muti-species research project is to better understand the movement ecology of sharks within Mossel Bay Great white shark research papers at a regional scale in Southern Africa. The use of technologically advanced tools to remotely collect data about the whereabouts of tagged aquatic animals has gained popularity around the world.

The deployment of acoustic telemetry arrays, or networks, are yielding unprecedented insights into movement ecology of studied animals, which in turn provide convincing data to shape corrective management decisions and policies.

The identification of important, localised, small scale habitat use is one key to understanding the ecology of large vertebrate predators in the bay and will help provide the information needed to manage the conservation of the ecosystem as a whole.

This project has been running since White Shark Habitat Use This project uses a combination of passive and active acoustic telemetry to track fine scale tri-dimensional movements and habitat choice patterns of white sharks through time and space.

During over hours of tracking 30 white sharks, including the 3 longest continuous white shark acoustic tracking effort ever: Dolphin Populations The project is investigating the size of the populations by photographically identifying individual dolphins from natural marks and scars, which allows the team to look at individual dolphin movements and interactions and estimate the number of animals using the bay.

White Shark Genetics This project aims to use genetic sampling to establish genetic relationships of white sharks within South Africa and internationally. This project has been running since in collaboration with the University of Aberdeen Scotland. Evolutionary Movement Ecology of dwarf cushion stars In the South African intertidal, two sympatric dwarf cushion stars operate as functional herbivores and play important roles in the structuring of rocky and sandflat communities.

These sympatric species, appear nearly identical and differ mainly in the placement of the gonopores, one with oral gonopores and attaching eggs to the surface of the substrate, and the other possessing aboral gonopores that release larva directly into the water. For such an organism, it can be hypothesised that natural selection will optimise movement patterns in relation to the method of larval distribution, with egg depositing species requiring more movement, and egg dispersing species requiring less, as they can rely on dispersal for ocean currents.

The aim is to understand and model their movement patterns and draw evolutionary conclusions based of the differing patterns of reproduction.

Energetic ecology and habitat utilisation of pyjama sharks This MSc project uses passive acoustic biotelemetry of Pyjama catsharks Poroderma africanum to determine their movement patterns and energetic ecology. The first part of the project will focus on the movement patterns and activity rates of Poroderma africanum within Mossel Bay, coupling accelerometry with passive acoustic telemetry.

Physiological research projects Read more Thermal Physio-Ecology of the White Shark The white shark is one of few elasmobranch species capable of maintaining parts of its body warmer than the surrounding environment.

Very little is known about the thermal physiology of white sharks in the wild, since studying these large, highly mobile and potentially dangerous predators, often in rough sea conditions, is challenging. This project has made use of multi-sensor acoustic telemetry to determine their habitat use, movement patterns and thermal ecology in Mossel Bay.

Tonic Immobility is a type of unlearned behavioural response characterized by a state of torpor. It has been considered as a defence mechanism against predators that is shared by animals such as fish, mammals, reptiles, birds and insects. However, given the habitat and known predators of sharks it does not seem likely that it would serve as an anti-predator strategy.

Evidence seems to suggest that tonic immobility may play a role in the reproductive behaviour of some sharks. However, the biological significance of the response in elasmobranchs remains uncertain.

When looking specifically at mating, males subject females to tonic immobility, but if tonic was evolutionary related to mating, then females should be more susceptible to tonic immobility than males.

Salmon Shark Species Profile, Alaska Department of Fish and Game

Then why then males are also prone to it? This project will look at species specific and gender specific responses to tonic immobility in two species of endemic catsharks: Morphometrics of sharks Defining species specific weight to length ratios helps to manage, regulate and maintain specimen health, against the manifestation of extreme conditions.

Captive feeding ration is dependent on many factors, and is therefore, not universally applicable under all circumstances and requires empirical adjustment. Therefore establishing length-weight L-W equations for sharks held within the Shark Lab, sharks caught from commercial fisheries, and from tagged and released wild individuals, is necessary for managing the health of captive individuals but also the health of wild stocks and the entire ecosystem.

Behavioural Research Projects Read more Predator-Prey Behavioural Games This study aims to describe and understand the dynamic behaviours played out between Cape fur seals and white sharks.

Research into the behavioural strategies adopted by these species is revealing new insights into their behavioural co-adaptation. Animal syndroms and personalities Quantify personality in non-model organisms like white sharks, Cape fur seals and cat sharks, will enhance our understanding of how personality affects the performance of the arm-race between predators and prey in the effort to survive.

Utilizing Orca Whale Sign Stimuli to Deter White Sharks In collaboration with the University of Pretoria and Human Wildlife Solutions we are investigating alternative methods of deterring white sharks by using killer whale sign stimuli which have the potential to act as a natural threat to white sharks.

This research may be utilized to increase safety for recreational ocean users and help reduce shark-human conflicts in a sustainable and non lethal way.Alternative Cancer Therapies Page 3 Updated.

02/19/16 Live Cell Therapy. Begun in Switzerland and outlawed in the US ( therapists use it in Germany), clinical evidence and testimonials abound on the regeneration properties of this therapy.

The various marine research projects operated by Oceans Research, including ecological, behavioral, environmental, physiological research projects and more. Marine research and conservation projects in South Africa Oceans Research. Great white shark bite strength Read more.

Size The usual length at birth seems to be between 1½ and 2 feet. [91] Blue sharks do not mature until they have grown to be 7 or 8 feet long, to judge from the sizes of the females that have been found with.

Fallows C, Martin RA, Hammerschlag N.

Great white shark research papers

() Comparisons between white shark-pinniped interactions at Seal Island (South Africa) with other sites in California (United States). Global Perspectives on the Biology and Life History of the Great White Shark, ed. Michael L. Domeier, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

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12 Facts About Great White Sharks | Mental Floss