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Lab 3 - Extraction Objective In this experiment, you will separate the components of a commercial headache powder via an extractive process.
This separation will be accomplished by taking advantage of the fact that each component contains different functional groups which will react differently when treated with a specific reagent. Introduction Extraction is a widely used method for the separation of a substance from a mixture.
It involves the removal of a component of a mixture by contact with a second phase. Solid-liquid and liquid-liquid extractions are commonly performed by batch and continuous processes. The removal of caffeine from coffee beans with dichloromethane is an example of a solid liquid extraction.
Crystal violet may be removed from a water solution by liquid-liquid extraction with n-amyl alcohol 1-pentanol. Other common applications of liquid-liquid extractions involve: This distribution between Extraction lab two layers may be described by the following relationship. The KD may be used to evaluate the effectiveness of an extracting solvent and to plan an extraction.
An extracting solvent should be Extraction lab, have a favorable KD, be nonreactive with the exception of aqueous solutions of acids and bases and be easily separated from solute.
Figure 1 Separating Each Compound Acetylsalicylic acid, Aspirin, is an organic acid; therefore, it is soluble in an organic solvent diethyl etherbut will react with a basic reagent: B such as sodium hydroxide or sodium bicarbonate to produce the conjugate base of the acid.
The conjugate base is a salt and is water soluble; therefore, it is removed from the organic solvent layer. Reacidification of this basic aqueous layer will regenerate the organic acid, which will precipitate from the aqueous solution due to the acid's limited solubility in water.
Figure 2 Caffeine is an amine; therefore, it has a basic nitrogen that will react with a proton source such as hydrochloric acid.
Reaction with the acid produces the conjugate acid of the amine an ammonium ion which is a salt and is water soluble recall the ammonium ion from General Chemistry. Adding base to the acidic aqueous layer will regenerate the water insoluble amine. Figure 3 The amide, salicylamide, is neither acidic nor basic enough to react; therefore, it will remain soluble in the organic solvent throughout the extraction process.
One of the most commonly used pieces of equipment in the Organic lab is the Separatory Funnel, or "Sep Funnel. Many reactions require that a component be removed by acid-base extraction. The isolation of useful compounds from naturally occurring materials is a common organic process.
All of these can be accomplished by means of a 'Sep Funnel. Sep Funnels come in all sizes from about 50 mL to 5 L or larger.
The Sep Funnel acts like a cocktail shaker. With the stopcock closed, ingredients are added through the top. The stopper is securely placed, and the contents are shaken. While the Sep Funnel is being shaken, the stopper must be held securely in place and the stopcock must be tightly shut.
Your TA will demonstrate the 'art' of securing the stopper in the palm of your hand while shaking the Sep Funnel. Quite often, the components develop some pressure on being shaken. This pressure must be carefully relieved by slowly opening the stopcock while the Sep Funnel is inverted.
Of course, the Sep Funnel must be 'aimed' away from any nearby person in case the pressure is larger than expected. Figure 4 After the Sep Funnel has been shaken a few times and the pressure relieved once or twice, the Sep Funnel is placed upright in an iron ring, and the stopper is removed.We provide our customers with leading-edge supercritical CO2 extraction technology, professional engineering services, and technical consulting for all phases of the extraction process.
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Army. Using advanced techniques and brewing methods, The Extraction Lab delivers the world’s best coffee and tea right here in Brooklyn. With a rotating selection of featured brews, this café provides an unforgettable experience. laboratory to isolate one or more components from a mixture. Unlike recrystallization and distillation, it does not yield a pure product; thus, the former techniques may be required to purify a product isolated by extraction.
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