Internet Sources Although he completed a philosophical education at Oxford, John Locke declined the offer of a permanent academic position in order to avoid committing himself to a religious order. Having also studied medicine, he served for many years as private physician and secretary to Anthony Ashley Cooper, the first Earl of Shaftesbury and one of the Lord Proprietors of the Carolina Colonies. Locke's involvement with this controversial political figure led to a period of self-imposed exile in Holland during the s, but after the Glorious Revolution of he held several minor governmental offices.
Overview[ edit ] The concept of nature as a standard by which to make judgments is traditionally said to have begun in Greek philosophyat least as regards the Western and Middle Eastern languages and perspectives which are heavily influenced by it.
By this account, human nature really causes humans to become what they become, and so it exists somehow independently of individual humans. This in turn has been understood as also showing a special connection between human nature and divinity. This approach understands human nature in terms of final and formal causes.
In other words, nature itself or a nature-creating divinity has intentions and goals, similar somehow to human intentions and goals, and one of those goals is humanity living naturally.
Such understandings of human nature see this nature as an "idea", or " form " of a human. Against this idea of a fixed human nature, the relative malleability of man has been argued especially strongly in recent centuries—firstly by early modernists such as Thomas Hobbes and Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
Still more recent scientific perspectives—such as behaviorismdeterminismand the chemical model within modern psychiatry and psychology —claim to be neutral regarding human nature. As in much of modern science, such disciplines seek to explain with little or no recourse to metaphysical causation.
Classical Greek philosophy[ edit ] Main article: According to AristotleEssay concerning human nature philosophical study of human nature itself originated with Socrateswho turned philosophy from study of the heavens to study of the human things.
The Socratic school was the dominant surviving influence in philosophical discussion in the Middle Agesamongst IslamicChristianand Jewish philosophers.
The human soul in the works of Plato and Aristotle has a divided nature, divided in a specifically human way. One part is specifically human and rational, and divided into a part which is rational on its own, and a spirited part which can understand reason.
Other parts of the soul are home to desires or passions similar to those found in animals. In both Aristotle and Plato, spiritedness thumos is distinguished from the other passions epithumiai. In his works, apart from using a similar scheme of a divided human soul, some clear statements about human nature are made: Man is a conjugal animal, meaning an animal which is born to couple when an adult, thus building a household oikos and, in more successful cases, a clan or small village still run upon patriarchal lines.
This type of community is different in kind from a large family, and requires the special use of human reason. Man loves to use his imagination and not only to make laws and run town councils.
He says "we enjoy looking at accurate likenesses of things which are themselves painful to see, obscene beasts, for instance, and corpses. However, the particular teleological idea that humans are "meant" or intended to be something has become much less popular in modern times.
Aristotle developed the standard presentation of this approach with his theory of four causes. Every living thing exhibits four aspects or "causes": For example, an oak tree is made of plant cells mattergrew from an acorn effectexhibits the nature of oak trees formand grows into a fully mature oak tree end.
Human nature is an example of a formal cause, according to Aristotle. Likewise, to become a fully actualized human being including fully actualizing the mind is our end.
The cultivation of learning and intellectual growth of the philosopher, which is thereby also the happiest and least painful life.
In Chinese thought[ edit ] Human nature is a central question in Chinese philosophy. Christian theology In Christian theology, there are two ways of "conceiving human nature". The first is "spiritual, Biblical, and theistic", whereas the second is "natural, cosmical, and anti-theistic".
As William James put it in his study of human nature from a religious perspective, "religion" has a "department of human nature".
However, there are some "basic assertions" in all "biblical anthropology". The Bible contains no single "doctrine of human nature".
Rather, it provides material for more philosophical descriptions of human nature. Created human nature[ edit ] As originally created, the Bible describes "two elements" in human nature:Online Library of Liberty.
A collection of scholarly works about individual liberty and free markets. A project of Liberty Fund, Inc. THE FALSE ALLURE OF GROUP SELECTION.
Human beings live in groups, are affected by the fortunes of their groups, and sometimes make sacrifices that benefit their groups. Writing an essay on one of the argumentative essay topics requires to be well armed with strong and convincing arguments concerning one of the chosen topics for a argumentation essay.
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We have lots of essays in our essay database, so please check back here frequently to see the newest additions. Introduction. For more than thirty-eight years, I have taught Reformational Philosophy at Dutch state universities. Every two years, I deal with the topic of Ethics of Technology.
As a thinker about the relation between Christian faith and technology, I have always been much interested in this subject. Searle, John (). American philosopher. Expanding on the work of J.L. Austin, Searle's Speech Acts: An Essay in the Philosophy of Language () treats all communication as instances of the performance of speech acts.
In Intentionality: An Essay in the Philosophy of Mind () and The Rediscovery of the Mind () Searle emphasizes the irreducibility of consciousness and intentionality to.