With the increasing life span of human beings, the concept of cloning human beings for replacement of body parts is abuzz in the science world. Though scary, it is not fiction. Discuss the positive and negative impacts of such procedures on the society?
Sc is graduating this year with an Honours degree in Biochemistry. She is looking forward to studying medicine at McGill this year, and hopes to do more research in the future.
For details, please refer to http: Abstract Advances in biotechnology necessitate both an understanding of scientific principles and ethical implications to be clinically applicable in medicine.
In this regard, therapeutic cloning offers significant potential in regenerative medicine by circumventing immunorejection, and in the cure of genetic disorders when used in conjunction with gene therapy. Scientific roadblocks impeding advancement in therapeutic cloning are tumorigenicity, epigenetic reprogramming, mitochondrial heteroplasmy, interspecies pathogen transfer, low oocyte availability.
Therapeutic cloning is also often tied to ethical considerations concerning the source, destruction and moral status of IVF embryos based on the argument of potential. Legislative and funding issues are also addressed.
Future considerations would include a distinction between therapeutic and reproductive cloning in legislative formulations. Therapeutic cloning is the transfer of nuclear material isolated from a somatic cell into an enucleated oocyte in the goal of deriving embryonic cell lines with the same genome as the nuclear donor.
Somatic cell nuclear transfer SCNT products have histological compatibility with the nuclear donor, which circumvents, in clinical applications, the use of immunosuppressive drugs with heavy side-effects. While the goal of reproductive cloning is the creation of a person, the purpose of therapeutic cloning is to generate and direct the differentiation of patient-specific cell lines isolated from an embryo not intended for transfer in utero.
Therapeutic cloning, through the production of these autologous nuclear-transfer embryonic stem cells ntESCoffers great promises for regenerative and reproductive medicine, and in gene therapy, as a vector for gene-delivery.
This review focuses on the recent breakthroughs in research based on therapeutic cloning, their feasibility, and their potential applications in medicine. The second part of this review discusses current roadblocks of therapeutic cloning, both in science and biomedical ethics, as well as the main alternatives to therapeutic cloning.
The host oocyte is arrested at metaphase II 2and immobilized through light suction exerted by a pipette tip. A glass needle is used to remove a small piece of the zona pellucida and is reinserted through this puncture to extract the polar body and the oocyte nuclei.
The incorporation of the somatic nuclei into the enucleated oocyte can be done through electrofusion, which is the application of an electric pulse to incorporate a mammalian cell into the oocyte used to produce Dolly.
Alternatively, a somatic nucleus can be injected in the perivitelline space, the fluid-filled region between the zona pellucida and the ooplasm, as was used for Cumulina, the first mouse cloned through SCNT. Mitosis occurs in vitro until the formation of the blastocyst, a fluid-filled hollow ball of cells 40— cells to which is attached, from the inside, the embryoblast or inner cell mass from which ntESC are taken.
Subsequent addition of cell-type specific markers and growth hormones promotes the differentiation of the ntESC into the desired cell-line to be implanted in vivo inside the nuclear donor for therapeutic purposes, in cell replacement therapy for instance.
In vitro, the ESC can proliferate ad infinitum and are totipotent, capable of differentiating into any cell-type of the body, contrary to adult stem cells which are multipotent, namely committed to produce any type of cells pertaining to a particular lineage 3.
Current legal status of therapeutic cloning in relation to reproductive cloning Laws regarding biomedicine are generally formulated in vague terms that do not distinguish reproductive from therapeutic cloning. The legitimacy of the latter is being questioned by the Prolife movement under the pretext that they were not democratically elected 5.
Australia is currently reviewing its existing laws 7 to follow the Asian trend in Singapore, China and South Korea, and to legalize the generation of chimeras using human DNA. Since both reproductive and therapeutic cloning require the in vitro generation of a human embryo, prohibiting reproductive cloning is likely to result in severely hindering medically important research based on therapeutic cloning.
A worldwide ban on reproductive human cloning was proposed by France and Germany to the UN in and effective4 since September 4. A breakthrough in reproductive cloning was published a month earlier by Zavos and Illmensee, who injected a skin fibroblast nucleus from an infertile man into an oocyte provided by his wife.
Promises of therapeutic cloning SCNT in the context of therapeutic cloning holds a huge potential for research and clinical applications including the use of SCNT product as a vector for gene delivery, the creation of animal models of human diseases, and cell replacement therapy in regenerative medicine.
Furthermore, SCNT might, in the future, allow in vitro organogenesis and counteract senescence. The combination of therapeutic cloning and gene therapy offers a great potential for patient-specific rescue of a genetic mutation of the loss-of-function type, resulting in lowered or eliminated activity of a particular protein.
Therapeutic cloning used in cell replacement therapy has the potential to create various types of tissues such as osteoblasts to counteract osteoporosis, and spinal cord regeneration following trauma, as shown by Deshpande et al, who transferred motor neurons derived from ESC to rats with a severed spinal cord 9.
The resulting recovery of motility could lead to clinical applications for paralysis in humans through therapeutic cloning. Applications in regenerative medicine: The assembly of patient-specific cardiomyocytes, blood vessels and skin pieces fixed on a scaffold 39 holds great hope in the treatment of infarctus, atherosclerosis and severe burns, respectively.
Consequently, the feasibility of de novo organogenesis based on SCNT depends on the elucidation of the tissue-specific molecular pathways mediating differentiation as well as the improvement of current SCNT and tissue engineering methods in order to recreate in vitro the complex three-dimensional organization and different intercellular interactions in organogenesis.
The combination of growth factors and differentiation markers added at each stage of the method were designed to duplicate pancreatic organogenesis in vivo, a breakthrough which could concretize the hope of generating organs using therapeutic cloning.
Barberi et al derived, by SCNT with somatic nuclei from mouse cumulus and tail-tip cells, two ntESC lines which were induced to differentiate into motor, GABAminergic, serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons 11 forming synapses and displaying normal electrophysiological properties in vitro.The color of skin is not a reason for difference, but instead it is a chance to celebrate diversity.
I have seen racism in action throughout my life. My friends have been hurt by it physically, mentally, and emotionally.
As a child, prejudice was never an option to me hating someone tha. be no diversity what so ever in today's society. Ban human cloning!, Jean Bethke Elshtain author of "To Clone or Not to Clone", displays a strong argument as to why human cloning should be banned.
Cloning may bring advances in artificial organs, cosmetics, and age reduction; but nevertheless it takes away a human's individuality, uniqueness. Animal and Human Cloning: Moral, Ethical, and Regulatory Issues Dolly, woolly, innocent, and sweet, strongly contrasts with the severity of the issues that she has raised.
Ever since the news surfaced that Dr. Ian Wilmut had succeeded in cloning a sheep, people around the world have been participating in a frenzied debate over the morality of cloning animals, and more importantly human beings.
Cloning humans has become a possibility that seems easier in today's society than it was twenty years ago. It is a method that involves the production of a group of identical cells or organisms that all derive from a single individual (Grolier ).
Controversial issues such as cloning, stem cell research and eugenics also need to be carefully studied. Since the beginning of the Human Genome Project, the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) has understood the need to address these issues as .
Kaitlin Emerson & Isla Perrett Is Human Cloning Ethical In Modern Day Society? Introduction Benefits of Cloning The cloning of animals is a concept that has existed since when scientists first cloned a .