Buddhism Hinduism No "value judgement" is implied by this list.
Women were especially in danger in liminal states: Changelings, in some instances, were regarded not as substituted fairy children but instead old fairies brought to the human world to die. The English poet and topographer George Waldronwho lived in the Isle of Man during the early 18th century, cites a tale of a reputed changeling that was shown to him, possibly a child with an inherited genetic disorder: His mother, or at least his supposed mother, being very poor, frequently went out a-charing, and left him a whole day together.
The neighbours, out of curiosity, have often looked in at the window to see how he behaved when alone, which, whenever they did, they were sure to find him laughing and in the utmost delight. Along with this belief in supernatural beings was the view that they could spirit away children, and even adults, and take them back to their own world see Elfhame.
When taunted by other boys he would not hesitate to draw his gully a large knife and dispatch them, however being that he was woefully short in the legs they usually out-ran him and escaped.
Scott beat a hasty retreat. It was believed that if a human child was taken in spite of such measures, the parents could force the return of the child by treating the changeling cruelly, using methods such as whipping or even inserting it in a heated oven. In at least one case, a woman was taken to court for having killed her child in an oven.
When her husband demands she abandon the changeling, she refuses, and he leaves her — whereupon he meets their son in the forest, wandering free. The son explains that since his mother had never been cruel to the changeling, so the troll mother had never been cruel to him, and when she sacrificed what was dearest to her, her husband, they had realized they had no power over her and released him.
The tale is notably retold by Helena Nyblom as Bortbytingarna  in the book Bland tomtar och troll. The changelings grow up with their new parents, but both find it hard to adapt: Upset with the conditions of their lives, they both go astray in the forest, passing each other without noticing it.
The princess comes to the castle whereupon the queen immediately recognizes her, and the troll girl finds a troll woman who is cursing loudly as she works. The troll girl bursts out that the troll woman is much more fun than any other person she has ever seen, and her mother happily sees that her true daughter has returned.
Both the human girl and the troll girl marry happily the very same day. Spain[ edit ] In Asturias North Spain there is a legend about the Xanaa sort of nymph who used to live near rivers, fountains and lakes, sometimes helping travellers on their journeys.
The Xanas were conceived as little female fairies with supernatural beauty. They could deliver babies, "xaninos," that were sometimes swapped with human babies in order to be baptized. The legend says that in order to distinguish a "xanino" from a human baby, some pots and egg shells should be put close to the fireplace; a xanino would say: Wales[ edit ] In Wales the changeling child plentyn cael sing.
It may be of less than usual intelligence, but again is identified by its more than childlike wisdom and cunning. The common means employed to identify a changeling is to cook a family meal in an eggshell. The child will exclaim, "I have seen the acorn before the oak, but I never saw the likes of this," and vanish, only to be replaced by the original human child.
Alternatively, or following this identification, it is supposedly necessary to mistreat the child by placing it in a hot oven, by holding it in a shovel over a hot fire, or by bathing it in a solution of foxglove.
InAnne Roche bathed Michael Leahy, a four-year-old boy unable to speak or stand, three times in the Flesk ; he drowned the third time. She swore that she was merely attempting to drive the fairy out of him, and the jury acquitted her of murder.
Local storyteller Jack Dunne accused Bridget of being a fairy changeling. It is debatable whether her husband Michael actually believed her to be a fairy; many[ who?Afro-Carribean Yoruba, unknown origins CE Mythology of the Yoruba Religion A recounting and explanation of Yoruba creation stories by Oba Ecun, the Yoruba name of Cuban-born Cecilio Perez, Yoruba practitioner and scholar.
Text and notes taken from Ita: Mythology of the Yoruba Religion, by Oba Ecun, Obaecun Books, Miami A Brief Look at the Yoruba People - In Southwestern Nigeria there is an ethnic group of people known as the Yoruba. This culture is found in other areas of Africa such as Togo, Sierra Leone and Liberia.
The Handbook of Yoruba Religious Concepts [Baba Ifa Karade] on leslutinsduphoenix.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. In this introductory volume, Baba Ifa Karade provides an easily understandable overview of the Yoruba religion.
He describes 16 orisha and shows us how to work with divination. Oshun, also spelled Osun, an orisha (deity) of the Yoruba people of southwestern Nigeria. Oshun is commonly called the river orisha, or goddess, in the Yoruba religion and is typically associated with water, purity, fertility, love, and sensuality.
She is considered one of the most powerful of all orishas, and, like other gods, she possesses human attributes such as vanity, jealousy, and spite. A changeling is a creature found in folklore and folk religion.A changeling child was believed to be a fairy child that had been left in place of a human child stolen by the fairies.
The theme of the swapped child is common in medieval literature and reflects concern over infants thought to be afflicted with unexplained diseases, disorders, or . The Handbook of Yoruba Religious Concepts [Baba Ifa Karade] on leslutinsduphoenix.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
In this introductory volume, Baba Ifa Karade provides an easily understandable overview of the Yoruba religion. He describes 16 orisha and shows us how to work with divination.